In this project, new materials based on 2D carbides (MXenes) of transition metals will be prepared. These materials will be used as catalysts for the production of renewable H2 from bioethanol using catalytic and photocatalytic processes, as well as for the catalytic CO2 reduction. For this end, the preparation of 2D MXenes with a small number of layers will be addressed exploring different methods, some of them recently reported. For the synthesis of MXenes (M= Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W), commercial and laboratory-prepared MAX will be used, avoiding the use of HF and using hydrothermal methods in the presence of a base, including the use of microwaves. This method will result in the surface functionalization with OH and O groups. The delamination of MXenes will be assisted by ultrasonication in the presence of intercalation agents. These delaminated materials will be introduced as substitute of noble metals in Co- and Ni-based supported catalysts developed in our group, which resulted highly efficient for the hydrogen production from ethanol reforming processes.
Moreover, the MXenes prepared will be incorporated as co-catalysts to TiO2 and g-C3N4 for the photocatalytic hydrogen production using aqueous solutions of ethanol. In this case, the organic roducts derived from ethanol will be also determined. The delaminated MXenes prepared will be added to the Co- and Ni-based supported catalysts, TiO2 and g-C3N4, using ultrasounds. New materials based on MXenes and containing nanoparticles of Cu and Ni will be prepared to be used as catalysts for the CO2 reduction, specifically for CO production, through the reverse water gas shift reaction, and CH4 production; Cu and Ni will be introduced by impregnation. In all cases, materials will be deeply characterized, before and after the catalytic reactions, using different physic-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and impedance measurements, among others. The catalytic behavior of the materials will be analyzed as a function of different reaction parameters and the stability of the most performant catalysts will be determined. Finally, the characteristics of the materials will be correlated with their catalytic behavior.
Este proyecto ha sido financiado a cargo del Programa Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento y Fortalecimiento Científico y Tecnológico del Sistema de I+D+i y de I+D+i Orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad, en el marco del Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020. Financiado por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) a través de la Agencia Estatal de Investigación.